Tutorials for Linux Users

Installing Firefox Web Browser and some Essential Plugins for Linux...

Here are some notes on installing Firefox and plugins for Flash, Java and Mplayerplug-in:

Installing Firefox:

  1. Download the latest Firefox installer via http://www.mozilla.org/products/firefox/
  2. untar the archive, `tar -xvzf firefox-x.x.x-x-linux-gtk2+xft-installer.tar.gz`
  3. `cd firefox-installer`
  4. Login as root before doing the install, `su`
  5. Run the installer, `./firefox-installer`
  6. Change the destination install directory to be "/usr/lib/firefox"
  7. Create a Launcher on your desktop after installation.

Note: All of the .so plugin files go to the "/usr/lib/firefox/plugins" folder...

HostingHacks.net: Tools to build a linux web hosting service

Interested in building a linux web hosting service? HostingHacks.net has some excellent documentation and an easy to follow step by step process to do so. Currently only Redhat and Fedora write-ups is available, but others are to follow...

Configuring your Apache webserver for win32 to allow vhosts

This is the crash course tutorial for creating vhosts in your apache webserver for win32 (and even linux except for some windows specific configuration)

If you are a web programmer like me, you will probably be handelling many php/perl projects at the same time with your apache. Putting everything in `htdocs` is a headache because it will make it look very messy. So this is where vhosts comes into play. For most linux webservers, systems like ensim or plesk handle these things without letting the users know what is going on behind! Moreover apache's documentation might seem confusing.

Lets begin...

Easy Automated Snapshot-Style Backups with Linux and Rsync

This document describes a method for generating automatic rotating "snapshot"-style backups on a Unix-based system, with specific examples drawn from the author's GNU/Linux experience. Snapshot backups are a feature of some high-end industrial file servers; they create the illusion of multiple, full backups per day without the space or processing overhead. All of the snapshots are read-only, and are accessible directly by users as special system directories.

Burning CD, data disk using Command Line Interface with cdrecord ...

Creating an Image

If you are working on servers that don't have a console attached, "mkisofs" and "cdrecord" utilities make working with ISO images very easy!

An ISO is a slang for an image of an ISO9660 filesystem, which is the common format of data CD-ROMs.

To make an ISO image to prepare for burning in a CD burner, use "mkisofs":

$ mkisofs -r /path/to/direcory/ > /tmp/directory.iso


$ mkisofs -r -o /tmp/directory.iso /path/to/direcory/

or for DVD video

$ mkisofs -dvd-video -r -V VolumeLabel -o /tmp/directory.iso /path/to/direcory/

The option '-r' sets the permissions of all files to be public readable on the CD and enables RockRidge-extensions. Long filenames and file permissions are preserved when mounted on systems that support Rock Ridge.

How to create and use a patch in Linux

Creating a Patch File:

diff -Naur olddir newdir > new-patch
- or -
diff -Naur oldfile newfile >new-patch

A Note concerning Patch and the number of Directory Levels used:

Try to make sure when creating a patch file that you have the same number of directories levels for both the olddir path and newdir path. For Ex:

--- old/modules/pcitable	Mon Sep 27 11:03:56 1999
+++ new/modules/pcitable	Tue Dec 19 20:05:41 2000

The above diff would work ok as a patch.

--- old/try1/other/modules/pcitable	Mon Sep 27 11:03:56 1999
+++ new/modules/pcitable	Tue Dec 19 20:05:41 2000

You may have problems with the above diff working as a patch. Note that the first one has 4 directory levels mentioned and the 2nd one has only two. I would suggest modifying the --- and +++ lines to make the directory structure in both to be the same number of levels deep.

Using the Patch Command:

patch -p0 < new-patch
patch -p1 < new-patch

Which one of the above patch commands you use depends on your current working directory.

Other Methods for calling the patch command - using standard input of patch:

cat new-patch | patch -p0

Other methods for calling the patch command - using a "here document":

patch -p0 << EOF
--- old/modules/pcitable	Mon Sep 27 11:03:56 1999
+++ new/modules/pcitable	Tue Dec 19 20:05:41 2000
@@ -1,4 +1,6 @@
 0x0e11	0xae10	"cpqarray"	"Compaq|Smart-2/P RAID Controller"
+0x1000	0x0010	"cpqarray"	"Compaq|Integrated Array Controller"
+0x1011	0x0046	"cpqarray"	"Compaq|Smart-2/P RAID Controller"
 0x0e11	0xae32	"tlan"	"Compaq|Netelligent 10/100"
 0x0e11	0xae34	"tlan"	"Compaq|Netelligent 10"
 0x0e11	0xae35	"tlan"	"Compaq|Integrated NetFlex-3/P"
@@ -21,6 +23,7 @@
 0x1000	0x000f	"ncr53c8xx"	"Symbios|53c875"
 0x1000	0x0012	"ncr53c8xx"	"Symbios|53c895a"
 0x1000	0x008f	"ncr53c8xx"	"Symbios|53c875J"
+0x1000	0x000a	"sym53c8xx"	"Symbios|53c1510"
 0x1000	0x0701	"yellowfin"	"Symbios|83C885 gigabit ethernet"
 0x1000	0x0702	"yellowfin"	"Symbios|Yellowfin G-NIC gigabit ethernet"
 0x1011	0x0001	"tulip"	"DEC|DECchip 21050"
--- old/usr/share/kudzu/pcitable	Sun Sep 26 17:11:23 1999
+++ new/usr/share/kudzu/pcitable	Tue Dec 19 20:05:41 2000
@@ -15,6 +15,8 @@
 0x0e11	0x3034	"unknown"	"Compaq|QVision 1280/p"
 0x0e11	0x4000	"unknown"	"Compaq|4000 [Triflex]"
 0x0e11	0xa0f3	"ignore"	"Compaq|Triflex PCI to ISA Bridge"
+0x1000	0x0010	"cpqarray"	"Compaq|Integrated Array Controller"
+0x1011	0x0046	"cpqarray"	"Compaq|Smart-2/P RAID Controller"
 0x0e11	0xae10	"cpqarray"	"Compaq|Smart-2/P RAID Controller"
 0x0e11	0xae29	"unknown"	"Compaq|MIS-L"
 0x0e11	0xae2a	"unknown"	"Compaq|MPC"
@@ -46,6 +48,7 @@
 0x1000	0x000f	"ncr53c8xx"	"Symbios|53c875"
 0x1000	0x0012	"ncr53c8xx"	"Symbios|53c895a"
 0x1000	0x008f	"ncr53c8xx"	"Symbios|53c875J"
+0x1000	0x000a	"sym53c8xx"	"Symbios|53c1510"
 0x1000	0x0701	"yellowfin"	"Symbios|83C885 gigabit ethernet"
 0x1000	0x0702	"yellowfin"	"Symbios|Yellowfin G-NIC gigabit ethernet"
 0x1000	0x0901	"unknown"	"Symbios|61C102"

For the "here document", patch will read all the following lines, up until it reaches the delimeter that we specified after the << symbol. The delimeter we choose must appear at the beginning of a line, and must appear alone. In our case we are using the delimeter EOF. EOF has no special meaning, other than the fact that it is not likely that we would have a reason to type EOF at the beginning of any given line.

Levels in the Patch Command (-p0 or -p1?):

The -p option will optionally strip off directory levels from the patchfile. For Ex: if you have a patchfile with a header as such:

--- old/modules/pcitable	Mon Sep 27 11:03:56 1999
+++ new/modules/pcitable	Tue Dec 19 20:05:41 2000

Using a -p0 will expect, from your current working directory, to find a subdirectory called "new", then "modules" below that, then the "pcitable" file below that.

Google Tricks and hacks by d00m

Google.com is undoubtedly the most popular search engine in the world. It offers multiple search features like the ability to search images and news groups.However it's true power lies in it's powerful commands that can be used and misused.I am writing this article on the basis of my experience using google and trying out ideas when i am bored.Now enough of lecturing...let's get

down to business.)

The Power of Find !!

find is one of the most usefull and important utilities any *NIX has. We will try to demonstrate you with some find basics.

find begins at a specified point on a directory tree and searches all lower branches for files that match a given set of parameters.

$ find path operators

path is the directory in which find will begin to search. Any number of directories can be specified. The search is recursive.

opeators/options tells find which files you are interested in.

Install Debian Onto a Remote Linux System

HOWTO - The howto attempts to describe the steps required to change the Operating System running on a remote system to Debian. While tested under a Redhat system and also a bit under an existing system), it should be applicable under any linux variant, and most likely other Unix's as well.

Create Water Droplets with Photoshop

Water Droplets - First of the Photoshop tutorials creating special effects. This tutorial was done using Photoshop7. Total filesize of the tutorial is about 440 KB, so please be a little patient if you are on a dialup.

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