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Fixing - The following security updates require Ubuntu Pro with esm-apps enable on Ubuntu Linux

nixCraft - 4 min 43 sec ago
{Updated} Are you getting the message: The following security updates require Ubuntu Pro with esm-apps enabled. Here is how to fix it to get updates on your Ubuntu Linux VM/Server or desktop.The post Fixing - The following security updates require Ubuntu Pro with esm-apps enable on Ubuntu Linux appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-02-03T10:35:00Z 2023-02-03T10:35:00Z Vivek Gite

How to skip ChatGPT from WireGuard or OpenVPN on Linux

nixCraft - 4 min 43 sec ago
nixCraft Patreon supporters can download the PDF version here. ChatGPT (short for Chat Generative Pre-trained Transformer) is a chatbot by OpenAI. It provides answers to your queries using learning techniques based on AI/ML. Unfortunately, ChatGPT deny access when connected via VPN (Virtual Private Network) such as WireGuard or OpenVPN, and you will be blocked with the following message: Let us see how to skip the ChatGPT domain from WireGuard or OpenVPN access while you can access corporate resources behind VPN. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post How to skip ChatGPT from WireGuard or OpenVPN on Linux appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-02-02T19:22:05Z 2023-02-02T19:22:05Z Vivek Gite

Linux iotop Check What is Stressing and Increasing Load On Hard Disks

nixCraft - 4 min 43 sec ago
{Updated} The iotop is a Linux command. It is a top-like utility for disk input and output (I/O). Use this command to see I/O usage information output by the Linux kernel. It displays a table of current I/O usage by Linux processes or threads on the Linux system. This post explains how to install and use the iotop command to discover what is stressing (or program names) on your hard drives under Linux operating systems.The post Linux iotop Check What is Stressing and Increasing Load On Hard Disks appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-01-20T22:29:00Z 2023-01-20T22:29:00Z Vivek Gite

How to hide Nginx version on Linux and Unix

nixCraft - 4 min 43 sec ago
{Updated} This quick guide explains how to hide or remove the Nginx version on Linux or Unix server without restarting the system.The post How to hide Nginx version on Linux and Unix appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-01-20T22:27:00Z 2023-01-20T22:27:00Z Vivek Gite

macOS configuring SSH Key-based Authentication

nixCraft - 4 min 43 sec ago
In this quick tutorial, you will configure a user to use key-based authentication for SSH under a macOS desktop. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post macOS configuring SSH Key-based Authentication appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-01-20T21:54:58Z 2023-01-20T21:54:58Z Vivek Gite

How to configure automated security updates on Debian automatically

nixCraft - 4 min 43 sec ago
{Updated} Keeping your system up-to-date is essential from a security POV, yet many devs or sysadmins forget about it. This page explains the purpose of unattended-upgrades used on a Debian Linux 11/10 to keep the computer current with the latest security updates.The post How to configure automated security updates on Debian automatically appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-01-17T21:44:00Z 2023-01-17T21:44:00Z Vivek Gite

How To Set Up SSH Keys With YubiKey as two-factor authentication (U2F/FIDO2)

nixCraft - 4 min 43 sec ago
Patreon users download the PDF version. All Linux and Unix servers are managed manually or by automation tools such as Ansible using ssh. For example, say you have a server at Linode or AWS. Then you copy your public ssh key to a remote cloud server. Once copied, you can now login to those servers without a password as long as ssh keys are matched. It is the best practice. Unfortunately, you are not protecting ssh keys stored on a local desktop or dev machine at $HOME/.ssh/ directory. If your keys are stolen, an attacker can get access to all of your cloud servers, including backup servers. To avoid this mess, we can protect our ssh keys stored on local dev/desktop machines using physical security keys such as YubiKey. In both cases, you need to insert your YubiKey (or any FIDO2 compatible hardware key) into a USB port and complete the authentication. In other words, ssh login will not work when malware or attacker has stolen your passphrase and ssh keys as they can not insert YubiKey and press the button on it to complete OTP for ssh keys. In the corporate environment, we have a bastion host that allows ssh access with Yubikey. It is a special-purpose server on a network specifically designed and configured to withstand attacks. The server generally hosts an sshd process, and all other services are removed. Once logged into bastion host, you can access all other cloud servers easily. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post How To Set Up SSH Keys With YubiKey as two-factor authentication (U2F/FIDO2) appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-01-17T21:08:37Z 2023-01-17T21:08:37Z Vivek Gite

How to install git command on Alpine Linux

nixCraft - 4 min 43 sec ago
Git is a distributed version control system. To install git, type apk add git command on Alpine Linux. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post How to install git command on Alpine Linux appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-01-04T07:40:07Z 2023-01-04T07:40:07Z Vivek Gite

How to add Mastodon verification for the Discourse forum

nixCraft - 4 min 43 sec ago
Here is a quick tip that explains how to add a Mastodon verification link for the Discourse forum. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post How to add Mastodon verification for the Discourse forum appeared first on nixCraft. 2022-12-20T07:12:52Z 2022-12-20T07:12:52Z Vivek Gite

How to convert video to GIF in Linux using ffmpeg CLI

nixCraft - 4 min 43 sec ago
In this quick Linux tip, I will explain how to convert a VIDEO file such as .mp4 into a gif file using the ffmpeg -i input.mp4 output.gif command syntax under Linux and Unix-like operating systems such as macOS. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post How to convert video to GIF in Linux using ffmpeg CLI appeared first on nixCraft. 2022-12-05T20:18:47Z 2022-12-05T20:18:47Z Vivek Gite

Find APT packages occupy the most space on Debian/Ubuntu

nixCraft - 4 min 43 sec ago
Are you running out of disk space on your Debian or Ubuntu Linux? Do you want to know which installed Debian or Ubuntu packages occupy the most disk space? There are many ways to find out this info. In this quick tip, you will learn about listing apt or apt-get installed packages that occupy the most space using the command-line options. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post Find APT packages occupy the most space on Debian/Ubuntu appeared first on nixCraft. 2022-11-15T17:39:27Z 2022-11-15T17:39:27Z Vivek Gite

How to tell ssh client to ignore ssh config file

nixCraft - 4 min 43 sec ago
I have a tutorial that explains the basics of the SSH client configuration file and some of the most common configuration options for Linux and Unix developers or sysadmin. In this quick tip, I will explain how and why you sometimes need to ignore or exclude the ssh client config file under Linux, Unix, *BSD and macOS. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post How to tell ssh client to ignore ssh config file appeared first on nixCraft. 2022-10-21T18:30:21Z 2022-10-21T18:30:21Z Vivek Gite

How to install dig, delv, host commands on FreeBSD

nixCraft - 4 min 43 sec ago
FreeBSD default comes with a drill command to see information about DNS. The userspace tools for FreeBSD come from the latest version of the BIND-TOOLs package. It includes delv, dig, host, nslookup, and nsupdate. Let us see how to search and install dig, delv, and host commands on FreeBSD using the pkg command. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post How to install dig, delv, host commands on FreeBSD appeared first on nixCraft. 2022-10-08T05:18:50Z 2022-10-08T05:18:50Z Vivek Gite

BASH Shell: For Loop File Names With Spaces

nixCraft - 4 min 43 sec ago
{Updated} In this tip, I will explain how we can iterate over a list of files with blank or white spaces in their names. This is a common problem in bash, where space is usually interpreted as a delimiter when using with for loop.The post BASH Shell: For Loop File Names With Spaces appeared first on nixCraft. 2022-09-19T18:06:00Z 2022-09-19T18:06:00Z Vivek Gite

How to see Raspberry Pi OS version on Raspberry PI

nixCraft - 4 min 43 sec ago
Do you want to know which version of Raspberry Pi OS is running on your hardware? Here is how to find the Raspberry Pi OS version including hardware details such as CPU, RAM and model using the command-line option. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post How to see Raspberry Pi OS version on Raspberry PI appeared first on nixCraft. 2022-09-17T09:49:29Z 2022-09-17T09:49:29Z Vivek Gite

pydf - Linux tool to see colourised filesystem disk space usage

nixCraft - 4 min 43 sec ago
{Updated} The pydf command displays the amount of used and available space on your file systems, just like df command, but in colors. The output format is completely customizable.The post pydf - Linux tool to see colourised filesystem disk space usage appeared first on nixCraft. 2022-09-13T11:57:00Z 2022-09-13T11:57:00Z Vivek Gite

Why are the results of UNIX, BSD and Linux command 'df' and 'du' different sometimes?

nixCraft - 4 min 43 sec ago
{Updated} As a Unix sysadmin, sometimes I notice that df and du output are different from each other. So what to do when df and du report different usage? My older troubleshooting blog post from the 2000s is still valid in 2022.The post Why are the results of UNIX, BSD and Linux command 'df' and 'du' different sometimes? appeared first on nixCraft. 2022-09-13T11:52:00Z 2022-09-13T11:52:00Z Vivek Gite

How to upgrade OpenSUSE 15.3 to 15.4 using the CLI

nixCraft - 4 min 43 sec ago
Right now, the most advanced OpenSUSE version is 15.4. It is an opportunity for desktop and server users running the previous 15.3 release to update to the latest software stack. The procedure for upgrading OpenSUSE 15.3 to 15.4 is simple to follow. This tutorial will walk you through the process of upgrading OpenSUSE 15.3 to 15.4. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post How to upgrade OpenSUSE 15.3 to 15.4 using the CLI appeared first on nixCraft. 2022-09-13T06:52:16Z 2022-09-13T06:52:16Z Vivek Gite

Apache 403 Forbidden Error and Solution

nixCraft - 4 min 43 sec ago
{Updated} All HTTP error codes starting with 4xx are generated because of client browser requests. A 403 error code means the client browser (or the person trying to access your site) cannot access the requested URL. Many reasons can cause it. Let us see how Linux, Unix developers, and sysadmin can fix Apache 403 Forbidden errors.The post Apache 403 Forbidden Error and Solution appeared first on nixCraft. 2022-09-11T10:21:00Z 2022-09-11T10:21:00Z Vivek Gite

Ubuntu 22.04 Set Up UFW Firewall in 5 Minutes

nixCraft - 4 min 43 sec ago
A Ubuntu 22.04 LTS comes with UFW (uncomplicated firewall) that protects the desktop or server against unauthorized access. UFW is easy to use frontend app for a Linux packet filtering system called Netfilter. Traditionally Netfilter rules are set up or configured using the iptables command by developers and sysadmins. However, new Ubuntu Linux users and developers unfamiliar with firewall concepts find Netfilter syntax confusing. Hence, the ufw project provides easy to use frontend for Ubuntu 22.04 LTS Linux server and desktop. It is so super easy to set up. You can configure UFW in under 5 minutes and secure your host. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post Ubuntu 22.04 Set Up UFW Firewall in 5 Minutes appeared first on nixCraft. 2022-08-26T02:03:57Z 2022-08-26T02:03:57Z Vivek Gite

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